Bory Tucholskie

Park Narodowy Bory Tucholskie - The flora of the Park

The flora of the Park

The flora of the “Bory Tucholskie” National Park has been determined by its soil and climatic conditions. In spite of a small area of the Park, scarcely diversified, poor and acid habitats, the flora of lichens, mosses, fungi and vascular plants is relatively rich. The flora of mosses accounts for approximately 22 % of the bryoflora of Poland, the flora of liverworts accounts for approximately 12 % of hepaticoflora of Poland, the flora of lichens constitutes 15 % of the lichenoflora of Poland, and the flora of vascular plants constitutes some 33 % of the lowerland flora and some 40 % of the Westpomeranian region flora.

The species of mosses and liverworts are dominated mainly by forest species and peat-bog species. We encounter them on the soil, rocks, trees both living and dead ones as well as in water. We may find here also relict species of glacial periods, such as

  • the tufted fen-moss Paludella squarrosa,

or forest relicts

  • Ulota crispa (moss),
  • Bazzania trilobata (liverwort).

Habitats of endangered species are extremely valuable. They include, among others,

  • the bog notchwort Clapodiella fluitans(liverwort),
  • the undulate dicranum moss Dicranum undulatum,
  • Hygroamblystegium tenax,
  • the rusty bog moss Sphagnum fuscum,
  • Sphagnum papillosum.

As far as the flora of fungi is concerned we still know little about this world. So far 483 species of macroscopic fungi have been identified (the status as of 2012.). Such list includes both popular as well as rare and endangered species

  • the forest lamb mushroom Albatrellus ovinus,
  • Lycioperdon ericaeum

as well as protected species like

  • the shingled hedgehog Sarcodon imbricatus,
  • the cauliflower fungus (until recently called: szmaciak gałęzisty in Polish ) Sparassis crispa.

Due to environmental preferences we encounter fungi on the soil, trees (parasitical fungi and saprotrophs) as well as so called mulch fungi (saprotrophs decomposing organic remains in the mulch layer). A very important role is played by all those fungi mycorrhizing both with trees as well as other plants. The occurrence of mycorrhizing fungi, and in particular their increasing number, confirm the healthiness of the Park forests.

Additionally, it is worth to mention underground fungi including one of the most popular fungus in the “Bory Tucholskie” National Park – the false truffle Elaphomyces granulatus.

Also the world of lichens of the “Bory Tucholskie” National Park is extraordinary. A considerable majority of them appears in forest areas. The above mentioned refers both to soil, tree and rock species. Obviously, the most common of them include cladonia, however, even among them we encounter extremely rare and interesting species such as the alpine cladonia Cladonia stellaris. Endangered species include Bryoria - B. implex, B. Vrangiana.

The flora of vascular plants is exceptional for its considerable number of species unique in Poland. Numerous relict species, that is species typical for the past climatic epochs with typical for the phytocenoses. The oldest components of the flora of the Park include glacial relicts, with arctic-alpine, boreal-alpine and boreal ranges, namely:

  • the marsh labrador tea Ledum palustre,
  • the black crowberry Empetrum nigrum,
  • the twinflower Linnaea borealis,
  • the slimstem reedgrass Calamagrostis stricta.

The species composition if vascular plants of the “Bory Tucholskie” National Park covers also a considerably numerous group of species with Central – European and Atlantic ranges, including species occurring in lobelia lakes:

  • the Dortmann'S cardinalflower Lobelia dortmanna,
  • the lake quillwort Isoëtes lacustris,
  • the alternate water-milfoil Myriophyllum alternifolium,
  • the floating water-plantain Luronium natans,
  • the narrowleaf bur-reed Sparganium angustifolium.

The unique character of this area may be confirmed by a relatively considerable number of protected species and plants categorized as endangered, listed on the “Red list of endangered vascular plants in Poland” and in “Polish Red Book of Plants”.
The most interesting species include, among others:

  • Drosera rotundifolia, D. intermedia, D. anglica,
  • Lycopodium, Diphasiastrum,
  • Utricularia.